روي أنه قال رسول الله صلى
الله عليه وسلم: إني كنت نهيتكم أن لا تنتبذوا في الظروف الدباء والمزفت والنقير
والحنتم. انتبذوا فيما رأيتم، واجتنبوا كل مسكر.
It is narrated that the Prophet (sws) said: “I had
directed you to refrain from fermenting drinks in Dubbā, Muzaffat, Naqīr and
Hantam. Now I permit you to ferment drinks in whichever utensils you have, but
refrain from all kinds of intoxicants.”1
1. The stated prohibition of these utensils was, in fact,
because of the reason that these utensils were generally used for the
preparation of liquor. It was primarily to check and discourage the preparation
of liquor that the use of these utensils was discouraged. The actual
prohibition, even at that time, was that of the liquor prepared in them, rather
than of the utensils themselves. Thus, at a later time, when people had
generally started refraining from preparing and drinking liquor, the use of the
stated utensils was expressly allowed.
Notes on the Text of the Narrative
This narrative or a part of it, with some variations, has
been reported in Nasā’ī (narrative nos. 2033, 4429, 5651, 5653), Abū Dā’ūd
(narrative nos. 3700, 3701), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (narrative nos. 1235, 4319, 6979,
13512, 13640, 23053, 23055, 23065, 23066, 23067, 23088), Ibn Hibbān (narrative
nos. 3168, 5400, 5409), Nasā’ī’s al-Sunan al-Kubrā (narrative no. 2160,
4519, 5161 and 5162) Bayhaqī (narrative nos. 6988, 6989, 17187, 17261, 17265)
‘Abd al-Razzāq (narrative no. 16949) Ibn Abī Shaybah (narrative nos. 25339,
25340, 25341), Abū Ya‘lā (narrative nos. 3705 and 5299). The preferred text has
been reported in Nasā’ī, narrative no. 2033.
In some variants, the words انتبذوا فيما
رأيتم واجتنبوا كل مسكر (I permit you to ferment drinks in which ever
utensils you have, but refrain from all kinds of intoxicants) are replaced by
وأمرتكم بظروف وإن الوعاء لا يحل شيئا ولا يحرمه فاجتنبوا كل
مسكر (I directed you to refrain from certain utensils. The fact is that a
utensil does not affect the prohibition or the permissibility of anything. You
should refrain from all kinds of intoxicants), as in Ahmad ibn Hanbal, narrative
no. 23088. A similar meaning is also implied by the words:
فقال أعرابي: إنه لا ظروف لنا فقال اشربوا ما حل واجتنبوا ما أسكر (A
Bedouin said: We do not have any other utensils [besides these]. The Prophet (sws)
replied: “Drink all that is lawful and refrain from all that intoxicates),” as
reported in Abū Dā’ūd, narrative nos. 3700 and 3701. All those other narratives
in which the Prophet (sws) is reported to have permitted the use of the utensils
specified in previous narratives should also be grouped with this narrative. For
روي أنه بعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى القوم فدعاهم
فقال في أي شيء تنتبذون قالوا ننتبذ في النقير والدباء وليس لنا ظروف فقال لا
تشربوا إلا فيما أوكيتم عليه قال فلبث بذلك ما شاء الله أن يلبث ثم رجع عليهم فإذا
هم قد أصابهم وباء واصفروا قال ما لي أراكم قد هلكتم قالوا يا نبي الله أرضنا وبيئة
وحرمت علينا إلا ما أوكينا عليه قال اشربوا وكل مسكر حرام
It is narrated that the Prophet (sws) sent for a people.
When they arrived, he asked them: “Which of the utensils do you use to ferment
your drinks?” They replied: “We ferment our drinks in Naqīr and Dubbā. We do not
have any other utensils.” The Prophet (sws) said: “Do not drink any fermented
drink, except that which is prepared in something whose lid is kept tightly
closed.” After some time, the Prophet (sws) saw these people again. He found
them to have become pale with an infection. He asked them: “Why do I see you in
such a bad state of health?” They replied: “O Prophet of God! our land is prone
to infections [and we used our fermented drinks as a shield against these
infections] but you directed us to refrain from all kinds of fermented drinks,
except those prepared with a tight cover.” The Prophet (sws) said: “You may
drink all kinds of drinks, but remember that you must refrain from all kinds of
This narrative has been reported by Nasā’ī, narrative no.
5655. Similar narratives include Nasā’ī, narrative no. 5656 and Bayhaqī,
narrative nos. 17205 and 17206.
While in a narrative reported by Bukhārī (narrative no.
5271), it is reported that:
لما نهى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن
الأسقية قيل للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ليس كل الناس يجد سقاء فرخص لهم في الجر غير
It is narrated that when the Prophet (sws) directed the
people to refrain from using utensils [which were generally used for preparing
liquor], people requested him that everyone did not have separate drinking
utensils [and, therefore, were left with no alternative]. At this, the Prophet
allowed them to use all these utensils, except Muzaffat.
This narrative, with minor variations, has been reported in
Bukhārī (narrative no. 5271), Muslim (narrative no. 2000), Nasā’ī (narrative no.
5650), Abū Dā’ūd (narrative no. 3700), Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (narrative no. 6497)
Nasā’ī’s al-Sunan al-Kubrā (narrative no. 5160, 6841) Bayhaqī (narrative no.
17257, 17258), ‘Abd al-Razzāq (narrative no. 16961) Humaydī (narrative no 582).
Except where otherwise specified, this text has been reported in Bukhārī,
narrative no. 5271. The exception relating to the fermented drinks prepared in
Muzaffat, as reported in this narrative, may be construed as a mistake of the
narrators of this text or as one step towards the ultimate permission granted by
the Prophet (sws), with reference to these utensils. In case of the latter, it
shall be assumed that after the initial directive of prohibition, the Prophet (sws)
allowed the use of some of these utensils, while maintaining the initial
directive for others – like, for instance, Muzaffat. This could be because of
the reason that Muzaffat may have been more commonly used for the preparation of
liquor. Nevertheless, as the main narrative implies, the Prophet (sws)
ultimately allowed the use of all of these utensils and clarified that the real
prohibition is not for any particular form of utensils, but for intoxicants
which were generally prepared in these utensils.