The poise and balance of a society heavily depends on the
poise and balance of the attitudes and tendencies of its people. Whenever human
attitudes cross their natural limits, disorder and discord result. In
particular, the stability of a society is threatened with dire consequences if
people vested with moral authority misuse this sacred trust of Allah. A
tyrannical husband soon encounters a defiant wife and oppressive parents
inevitably groom rebellious children. It is thus necessary to curb this tendency
of power to corrupt in order to build a healthy and prosperous society.
What then should be the guiding principles in human and
social relationships? This question is as old as the advent of man on the face
of this earth. Divine books have answered this question in detail so that man is
able to create a healthy society on this earth suited to his natural urges and
talents. This answer stands enshrined permanently in the Qur’ān which now
represents the final guidance of the Almighty to man regarding this social
sphere of life and indeed all the other spheres of life in which man’s intellect
can falter or is deficient.
Javed Ahmad Ghāmidī has made an attempt to decipher this
answer of the Qur’ān.
His answer is by no means the final word; however, it represents a worthy effort
made by human intellect to interpret the divine message regarding the norms and
principles of social relationships.
According to Ghāmidī, the fundamental premise on which
Islam has based these norms and principles is that the institution of family is
the basic unit of a society since it is the need of every individual if his life
is viewed as a whole. A man and a woman enter into a marital bond to form this
institution. Most social directives of Islam are given to safeguard this
Before summarizing Ghāmidī’s research on the topic, it
seems appropriate here to dwell in some detail on the afore-mentioned basic
premise pointed out by him.
Man is basically a weak and insecure being. He has
spiritual as well as material needs. Just as he needs to develop a strong
relationship with the Almighty to fulfill his spiritual needs, he also needs to
develop a strong relationship with his fellow human beings to fulfill this
material needs. It is because of these needs that Islam has prescribed the
institution of family as the basic building block of the society. Each
individual passes the first half of his life in transforming from a child to a
mature adult and the second half in transforming from a mature adult to an old
person. In the greater part of the first period, he needs the love and affection
of his parents. As an infant ‘ewling and puking in the nurse’s arms’, his meek
and helpless existence need the love and affection of a mother and a father. It
is only proper parental care which makes him feel secure and confident. Since
parents are the first seat of learning, the base they build in molding his
character and in instructing him plays a vital role in the later part of his
life. Grandparents also have an all important role to play: They imbue their
grandchildren with the priceless wealth of wisdom and experience which help them
in traversing the rugged terrain of life. Brothers and sisters also make
important contributions in developing his personality. The older ones are
actually an extension of the parental role while the younger ones create in him
an initial awareness of parenthood. Once a person reaches a mature age, certain
other needs arise in him which must be fulfilled. It is at this stage that a man
and a woman need each other to complement and complete one another. This
relationship is the only means of providing emotional fulfillment and
satisfaction to the spouses, which is the primary need that brings them together
and they now also assume the role of the progenitors of a new family to start
the cycle once again.
In the second phase of life, an individual advances from
the exuberant years of youth to the haggard years of old age. It is now that he
needs the love and protection of his grown up children. In this state of ‘second
childishness and mere oblivion’, which is ‘sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste,
sans everything’, it is only the set up of a family which can properly support
him. Without such a support, old age is the worst form of affliction. None
except the children have a strong attachment to their parents. It is this
attachment which urges them to return in some form the support and affection
they had once received from their parents.
Besides these primary relationships, the secondary
relationships like maternal aunts and uncles and paternal aunts, cousin brothers
and cousin sisters, nieces and nephews perform in a wider perspective the same
function as the primary ones. The components of a family thus constitute a small
community which if administered properly by the head of the family makes the
basic unit of a healthy society. Islam, therefore, according to Ghāmidī, has
always insisted that the institution of family is the basic building block of
the society and it is in the interest of humanity to adhere to a family-oriented
society. Consequently, it has given a number of directives for the protection
and preservation of the family. It has also laid out the procedure for husband
and wife to separate from one another if after repeated tries marriage cannot be
After dealing with this basic premise as highlighted by
Ghāmidī, an attempt will now be made to summarize the distinctive aspects of his
interpretation regarding the guiding principles of social and familial
relationships as put forth in the Qur’ān. Readers should consult his article for
details of the arguments on which he has based these conclusions. Arguments
regarding some of these conclusions however have been briefly alluded to here.
1. Regarding Family and Marriage
i. Treatment of Wives
Husbands often tend to forget the rights of their wives.
The Qur’ān (4:19) stresses that a husband should deal with his wife very
affectionately and in a most befitting manner. So much so, if he does not like
her in anyway, he must still always be kind and forbearing to her. He must not
forget that being the weaker sex, she has been confined in his custody. A
gentleman must always adhere to tolerance and magnanimity in dealing with his
ii. Organization of a Family Set Up
For the two reasons stated in the Qur’ān (4:34), husbands
are the heads of a family set-up. Specifically stated, these reasons are: (a)
husbands are entrusted with providing for the family, and (b) they are
temperamentally and physically more suited to discharge this responsibility.
In this regard, however, it must remain clear:
a. As human beings, men and women are equal and deserve
equal respect. However, they have been entrusted with different responsibilities
in a family set-up which make them superior to one another in various respects.
According to the Qur’ān (4:34), as far as a husband is concerned one sphere of
his superiority is his status as the head of the family alluded to in 2:228 with
the words ‘husbands are one degree superior to their wives’. There are certain
spheres in which women by nature – physical, physiological as well as
psychological – are superior to men and much more suitable to do certain tasks.
b. Islam does not forbid women to earn a living. It has
only absolved them of the responsibility of earning, which lies upon their
husbands. It also needs to be understood that the verse does not say that the
one among the husband or wife who supports the family should become the head;
husbands, whether their wives earn or not, are liable for this responsibility. A
woman may earn if she likes or if some need arises, but since she has not been
entrusted with this duty she has not been given the governing position in the
iii. The Issue of Mahr (dower)
As per the Qur’ān (4:25), the amount of Mahr (dower) should
be fixed keeping in view the social customs and traditions of a society. Its
quantity has not been ascertained by the Islamic Sharī‘ah. The basic philosophy
of Mahr (dower) needs to be clearly understood: Islam has entrusted the husband
with the responsibility of supporting his wife and children. It is he who must
earn to fulfill the requirements of the family. The Mahr money is only a token
of this responsibility. In other words, when a man pays this sum, he makes a
symbolic expression of the fact that he has taken the financial responsibility
of the woman he intends taking as his wife. Consequently, it is in the spirit of
this commitment that he pays the agreed sum before he takes home the bride.
iv. The Right to beat Wives
The right of a husband to punish his wife must be
understood in its proper perspective:
a. Firstly, it can only be resorted to when a wife starts
to challenge the authority of the husband and threatens to disrupt the family
set-up. It is in fact a last resort to protect the institution of family from
breaking up. It must not be resorted to in anything less in severity than a
rebellious attitude from the wife. The Qur’ān has not used the word
‘disobedience’. Any difference of opinion or altercation is not to be resolved
by this procedure. Disagreements and disputes must be settled mutually. It is
only when the wife stands up against the authority of her husband should this
procedure be employed
b. Before resorting to physical chastisement, the two
previous stages mentioned by the Qur’ān (4:34) must elapse. The husband should
first of all admonish his wife and convince her to give up her defiant behavior.
He should exercise all the patience he can muster to urge and beseech her to
change her stance. If after repeated pleas and continuous admonition in a
considerable span of time, the wife continues to persist in her rebellious
attitude, he has the authority to go on to the second stage by avoiding marital
contact with her. This detachment, it is clear, is a form of reproof, and a very
strong appeal to the wife to correct herself. Again, this attitude should
continue for a substantial period of time so that the point is driven home. It
is highly unlikely that most wives would persist in their arrogance after these
two initial stages. In all probability, patience, forbearance, and restraint
would have conquered their hearts. However, even after this stage, if a wife
refuses to accept the authority of her husband, the husband has the right to
finally resort to gentle physical affliction.
c. If the husband is left with no alternative but to
physically punish his wife, he must be very careful in this regard and must not
wound or injure her. He should remember that this physical chastisement is
similar to the one a mother gives to a rebellious son or the one a teacher gives
to an unruly student. He must be aware that in case he misuses this authority in
any way, he would be held responsible before the Almighty on the Day of
Judgement. In this world also, his wife has the right to report his behavior to
the authorities who can punish him for any misconduct in this regard.
It is incorrect to conclude that Islam has allowed a Muslim
to keep up to four wives at one time since keeping four wives is a man’s
essential physiological and psychological need. In normal circumstances, a
family comes into being through wedlock between one man and one woman. A subtle
reference to this is made by the Qur’ān (4:1) where it alludes to the fact that
when the Almighty created Adam, he made Eve for him as his only wife. Naturally,
had a man physically needed more than one wife, the Almighty would have created
more wives for Adam instead of just one.
vi. Marriage with the People of the Book
It is clear from the context of the Qur’ān (5:5) that it is
desirable though not binding for Muslim men to marry women from among the People
of the Book in areas where Islamic values reign supreme. It is evident that in
such conditions and circumstances, there is virtually no possibility of the
Muslims being influenced by their moral values and cultural traditions. Instead,
there is a far greater possibility that such marriages will positively influence
the women of the People of the Book by inducing them to accept Islam. Moreover,
it should be realized that the permission has only been given as a second option
because the danger in which a person puts his family’s faith is extremely
evident. Hence, only believing men have been given this permission; believing
women, in no case whatsoever have been allowed to do so.
vii. The Issue of Walī (Guardian) in Marriage
The consent of the parents/guardians is not a legal
requirement of marriage. The legal requirements are only two: the man and woman
who intend to get married must be chaste and a man must pay dower (Mahr) to his
wife. However, the consent of the parents/guardians is a cultural and social
requirement of marriage. It is actually a corollary of the social directives of
Islam pertaining to the institution of family and is based on great wisdom.
Since the preservation and protection of the family set up is of paramount
importance to Islam, it is but natural that each marriage take place through the
consent of the parents who are the foremost guardians. It is obvious that a
marriage solemnized through the consent of the parents shields and shelters the
newly formed family.
However, there can always be an exception to this general
principle. If a man and a woman feel that the rejection on the part of the
parents has no sound reasoning behind it or that the parents, owing to some
reason, are not appreciating the grounds of this union, they have all the right
to take this matter to the courts of justice. It is now up to the court to
analyze and evaluate the whole affair. If it is satisfied with the stance of the
man and woman, it can give a green signal to them. In this case, as is apparent
from a Hadīth, the state shall be considered the guardian of the couple. On the
other hand, if the court is of the view that the stand of the parents is valid,
it can stop the concerned parties from engaging in wedlock. Similarly, if a case
is brought before the judicial forums in which the marriage has taken place
without the consent of the parents, it is up to the court to decide the fate of
such a liaison. If it is not satisfied with the grounds of this union, it can
order for their separation and if it is satisfied, it can endorse the decision
taken by the couple.
viii. Suckling in Mature Age (Radā‘atu’l-Kabīr)
It is erroneous to conclude that a mature child can be
suckled and hence treated as a foster child. The misconception has arisen by
generalizing a Hadīth of the Prophet (sws). As per the Qur’ān, a child can only
be regarded as a foster child if he is suckled in infancy with a definite
intention to the purpose. Suckling a child through chance happenings or through
a few drops does not entitle him to fosterage rights.
ix. Prohibition of Combining a Lady and her Niece in
It is generally believed that a Hadīth, independent of the
Qur’ān, has prohibited a Muslim man from simultaneously keeping a lady and her
niece in marriage. Ghāmidī has shown that this Hadīth is actually based on a
Qur’ānic directive. Hence, this instance does not challenge the all important
contention that a Hadīth cannot prohibit something independent of the Qur’ān.
x. Marriages of Muhammad (sws)
Most marriages of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) were conducted
to help him in realizing his mission as a Prophet and a Messenger of God. He had
been given special directives in this regard and as such his marriages should be
viewed in the light of these directives.
xi. Consummation of Marriage with Minor Girls
It is erroneous to conclude on the basis of the Qur’ān
(65:4) that Islam has allowed marriage and its consummation with minor girls. If
the linguistic principles of the Arabic language are taken into consideration,
this conclusion does not arise. The correct translation of the last part of this
And those women whose menstrual courses have not begun
in spite of the fact that they have reached the age in which women normally have
menses, their waiting period is three months as well. (65:4)
This translation stems from the fact that the Arabic
particle used for negation in this verse is Lamm (لَمْ)
and not Mā (مَا). The verse is generally translated by
disregarding this subtle difference as:
And those women whose menstrual courses have not begun,
their waiting period is three months as well. (65:4)
Consequently, it is generally construed that in this verse
the ‘Iddat (waiting period) of those divorced women (girls more so) is stated
who have yet to reach the age of puberty. So the proponents of this view infer
that Islam allows marriage with minor girls.
2. Regarding the Norms of Gender Interaction
i. General Directives
i. It is only Sūrah Nūr in which these norms are mentioned.
Some of the important facts that are evident from these directives are:
a. Muslim women are not required by the Sharī‘ah to cover
b. Muslim women are not required by the Sharī‘ah to cover
their heads. Covering the head, however, is a desirable Muslim tradition.
c. Muslim women should wear clothes that do not make their
breasts prominent. This can be done by covering them or by any other means that
serves the purpose.
d. The expression Ghadd-i-Basr used by the Qur’ān (24:30-1)
does not mean that men and women have to stare at the floor. It means that they
must guard their gazes from taking undue liberty.
e. While following the norms underlined in the sūrah, men
and women can visit each other and sit and eat together if they want to.
ii. Specific Directives
The directives mentioned in Sūrah Ahzāb regarding gender
interaction specifically pertain to the household of the Prophet (sws). It is
evident from their context that they cannot be extended beyond this sphere. They
were primarily given to check the subversive activities of the Hypocrites who
had started a malicious campaign to scandalize the private lives of the Prophet
(sws) and his wives. It is by not understanding this aspect that the following
misconceptions have arisen:
a. The house is the centre of activities of a wife.
b. Muslim women must not speak in a polite tone with
c. Muslim women should be kept secluded except from their
immediate relatives as outlined in 33:54-5
d. Muslim women must wear large cloaks (jilbābs) when they
go out of their houses.
3. Regarding Divorce
i. The Right to Divorce
Only the husbands have the right to divorce. Wives cannot
divorce their husbands. They can only demand divorce from them.
ii. The Procedure of Divorce
If husbands desire a separation from their wives, then they
should do so according to the prescribed procedure mentioned in the Qur’ān by
uttering the divorce sentence once only. However, if someone who is ignorant of
this procedure, or owing to his own foolishness utters three divorce sentences
in succession, then such a case should be decided by a court giving full
allowance to his real intention.
iii. The Reason for ‘Iddat
It is evident from the Qur’ān (33:49) that the real reason
for the ‘Iddat is to ascertain whether a lady is pregnant or not. Consequently,
if it can be determined with certainty that a lady is not pregnant she will not
be required to observe this period.
iv. Meaning of the word ‘قَرْءٌ’
The Arabic word ‘قَرْءٌ’ means
both the ‘menstrual period’ and the ‘non-menstrual period of purity’. Hence,
there exists a difference of opinion among authorities regarding the meaning of
this word in the Qur’ān (2:228). The word ‘قَرْءٌ’
according to Ghāmidī is conclusively used in this verse to connote
‘menstruation’ because in the given context the real issue is to ascertain
whether a lady is pregnant or not. It is the period of menstruation that
determines this and not the period of purity.
v. The Issue of Gifted Wealth
In no way a husband has been authorized to take back the
dower money from his wife in case he divorces her. He is also not authorized to
take back any wealth or property gifted to her except in two specific cases
mentioned in the Qur’ān (2:229; 4:19).
The concept of Halālah has arisen because of not
understanding a very subtle sentence of the Prophet (sws) in a Hadīth. If its
text reported by Bukhārī is analyzed it is evident that a certain lady had
married a person only to become legally permissible to marry her first husband.
She demanded divorce from her second husband on the false grounds that her
husband was sexually impotent. When the Prophet (sws) became certain of her
scheme, he reprimanded her in very subtle words. He told her that she could only
become permissible for the first husband after ‘tasting’ her second husband.
This of course was not a condition as has been generally construed: the implied
meaning being that if according to her, her second husband does not have the
ability to copulate with her then she can only be divorced from him after he
copulates with her – which of course he will never since, according to her, he
is not capable of it. Thus if anything can be deduced from this Hadīth, it is
prohibition of Halālah and not vice versa. Hence it is absolutely prohibited and
is tantamount to making fun of the law.
vii. Residence and Maintenance after the third Divorce
In case a husband exercises the option of divorcing his
wife for the third time in his life, he will still have to provide residence and
maintenance to her till the expiry of the ‘Iddat period.
viii. Custody of Minors
The custody of minors in case of divorce has been left to
the discretion of a judge. No explicit law has been given in this regard.
4. Regarding Slavery
i. To Enslave or not to Enslave
It is erroneous to believe that Islam permits its followers
to keep slaves and have sexual contact with them. The notion of keeping slaves
has arisen by not giving due allowance to the fact that Islam had adopted a
gradual procedure in the time of the Prophet (sws) to eliminate this social evil
because of its deep roots in the society.
ii. The Qur’ānic Directive of Prohibition
After a program of gradual eradication adopted by Islam in
the time of the Prophet (sws), the Qur’ān (24:33) announced the final step in
slave emancipation by giving them the authority to earn their freedom by showing
that they would become responsible citizens of the society.
5. Regarding Widows
i. Reason for the Extended ‘Iddat
The ‘Iddat of a widow is forty days more than a divorced
lady to make absolutely certain her state of pregnancy or other wise. It is not
because these forty days are meant to provide her with an extended period of
ii. Provision for the Widow
A husband must make a will in favor of his wife that she be
provided residence and maintenance for one year after his death. This is in
accordance with the Qur’ān (2:140). It is incorrect to believe that the
inheritance verses of Sūrah Nisā have abrogated this verse.