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Researcher’s Companion to Ghamidi’s Surah Baqarah (275-286)
Qur'anic Exegesis
Dr. Shehzad Saleem

The Researcher’s Companion

I Meaning & Morphology (الصرف و اللغة)

1. أِمْلاَل and إِمْلا.

The word أِمْلاَل means “to dictate” and so does the word إِمْلا. Both words have been used in the Qur’an in this meaning. The question arises: Are these two independent words which are synonyms are or they a changed form of one anther? According to authorities,1 since the root م ل ي is devoid of this meaning (ie to dictate), whereas this meaning is found in the root م ل ل hence the word أِمْلا cannot be regarded to be an independent word which is synonymous to أِمْلاَل . It is actually a changed form of أِمْلاَل and has been formed by changing the ل of أِمْلاَل with الف. Ghamidi has referred to this very aspect (note. 13).

II Eloquence & Style (الاساليب و البلاغة)

1. Unreal Feminine Gender

As pointed out by Ghamidi (note. 4), the verb for the word مَوْعِظَةٌ is masculine because the feminine gender of مَوْعِظَةٌ does not connote actually femininity and for such words, a verb can be used to convey the meaning regardless of the gender.

Another instance of this usage can be seen in the following verse:

 كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمْ الْمَوْتُ إِنْ تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ (٢ :١٨٠)

When death approaches any one of you and you are leaving behind some wealth, it is incumbent upon you to make a will in favour of your parents and relatives according to the conventions [of society]. This is an obligation imposed upon the God-fearing.

 Here since the feminine gender of word الْوَصِيَّةُ is not real, it is not necessary for the verb كُتِبَ to be in the feminine form.

 2. Tadmin

As pointed out by Ghamidi (note. 13), there is a tadmin in the expression since the preposition ب does not collocate with فُسُوْق. The tadmin can be unfolded as فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ يُلْصَقُ بِكُمْ.

Another example of tadmin is the expression (29:2) ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ. Here, the preposition إِلَى  does not collocate with the verb اسْتَوَى. The expression encompasses the meaning of another verb which collocates with إِلَى. The implied meaning can be expressed as: ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى وَ تَوَجِّهَ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ.

III. Scriptures and Testaments

1. Interest in the Bible

You may charge a foreigner interest, but not a brother Israelite, so that the LORD your God may bless you in everything you put your hand to in the land you are entering to possess. If you make a vow to the LORD your God, do not be slow to pay it, for the LORD your God will certainly demand it of you and you will be guilty of sin. (Deuteronomy 23:20-21)

When you make a loan of any kind to your neighbor, do not go into his house to get what he is offering as a pledge. Stay outside and let the man to whom you are making the loan bring the pledge out to you. If the man is poor, do not go to sleep with his pledge in your possession. Return his cloak to him by sunset so that he may sleep in it. Then he will thank you, and it will be regarded as a righteous act in the sight of the LORD your God. (Deuteronomy 24:10-13)

He lends at usury and takes excessive interest. Will such a man live? He will not! Because he has done all these detestable things, he will surely be put to death and his blood will be on his own head. (Ezekiel 18:13)






1. see for example: Abu Hayyan, al-Bahr al-Muhit, vol. 2 (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 2000), 721.

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